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On This Date in History - November 23

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Astronomy & Space Word of The Day

viscosity: The measure or property of a material to be resistant to flow; the internal friction of a material. Materials with a high viscosity are more resistant to flow, while those with a low viscosity are more fluid.

Today in History:


1967: Mariner 5 - USA Venus Flyby (June 14 to November, 1967) completed its journey. Mariner 5 arrived at Venus on October 19, 1967, one day after Venera 4. It passed within 3,900 kilometers of the planet's surface. It studied the Venusian magnetic field and found that its atmosphere was composed of 85-99% carbon dioxide. It is now in a solar orbit.

1969: Apollo 12 - USA Lunar Manned Lander (November 14-24, 1969) Crew: Charles Conrad Jr., Alan L. Bean, Richard F. Gordon, Jr. Apollo 12 was a manned lunar landing which took place on November 19, 1969. The landing site was Oceanus Procellarum at latitude 3°12' S and longitude 23°23' W. This was the landing site for Surveyor 3. Conrad and Bean retrieved portions of Surveyor 3, including the camera. Samples amounting to 34.4 kilograms were returned from the moon. Astronauts also deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP), an automated research station which was also deployed by all subsequent lunar crews.

1995: Pioneer 11 - USA Jupiter/Saturn Flyby - 259 kg - (April 6, 1973 - November 1995) left the solar system. Pioneer 11 flew by Jupiter on December 1, 1974 passing 42,900 kilometers from Jupiter's cloud tops. It took better pictures than Pioneer 10, and measured Jupiter's intense charged-particle and magnet field environment. As it flew by Jupiter it was given a gravity assist which swung it onto a course for Saturn. On September 1, 1979, Pioneer 11 flew past the outer edge of Saturn's A ring at a range of 3,500 kilometers. It traveled underneath the ring system and passed 20,930 kilometers from Saturn's cloud tops.

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