Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States when it was sent into space on January 31, 1958. Following the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency was directed to launch a satellite using its Jupiter C rocket developed under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory received the assignment to design, build and operate the artificial satellite that would serve as the rocket's payload.
Explorer 1 Science Instruments:
The primary science instrument on Explorer 1 was a cosmic ray detector designed to measure the radiation environment in Earth orbit. Once in space this experiment, provided by Dr. James Van Allen of the State University of Iowa, revealed a much lower cosmic ray count than expected. Van Allen theorized that the instrument may have been saturated by very strong radiation from a belt of charged particles trapped in space by Earth's magnetic field.
The existence of these radiation belts was confirmed by another U.S. satellite launched two months later, and they became known as the Van Allen Belts in honor of their discoverer.
Explorer 1's Mission:
Explorer 1 revolved around Earth in a looping orbit that took it as close as 354 km (220 mi.) to Earth and as far as 2,515 km (1,563 mi.). It made one orbit every 114.8 minutes, or a total of 12.54 orbits per day. The satellite itself was 203 cm (80 in.) long and 15.9 cm (6.25 in.) in diameter. Explorer 1 made its final transmission on May 23, 1958. It entered Earth's atmosphere and burned up on March 31, 1970, after more than 58,000 orbits. The satellite weighed 14 kg (30.8 lb).
A launch attempt of a 2nd satellite, Explorer 2, was made on March 5, 1958, but the fourth stage of the Jupiter-C rocket failed to ignite. Explorer 3 was successfully launched on March 26, 1958, & operated until June 16 of that year. Explorer 4 was launched July 26, 1958, & operated until October 6 of that year. Launch of Explorer 5 on August 24, 1958, failed when the rocket's booster collided with its second stage after separation, causing the firing angle of the upper stage to be incorrect.
Explorer 1 Spacecraft Configuration:
Cylinder 94.6 centimeters (37.25 inches) long and 16.5 centimeters (6.5 inches) in diameter; total length with attached rocket motor 2.05 meters (80.75 inches)
Science instruments: Cosmic ray detector; micrometeorite (dust) detectors; internal and external temperature sensors
Explorer 1 Key Dates:
- 01.31.58: Launch
- 02.28.58: Last Data Transmitted
- Status: Mission Complete